Essay On Future Of Technology In Pakistan Karachi

Jinnah’s vision for a better Pakistan was quite clear: he wanted the new country to be a democratic welfare state adhering to the rule of law, good governance, emancipation of women and tolerance vis-à-vis minorities. Unfortunately, his vision for a better Pakistan got blurred and was not transformed into a reality because of his demise a year after the creation of the country and the failure of his successors to follow his directions. Unity, faith and discipline, which was an important message of Jinnah was forgotten with the passage of time and the culture of patronage, corruption and nepotism permeated in the societal and state structures of Pakistan.

At a time when Pakistan is celebrating its 67th independence anniversary, one needs to examine why the country drifted away from Jinnah’s vision for a better Pakistan and how one can expect ordinary people and those at the helm of affairs to transform Pakistan from a failing, to a successful and vibrant state. Economic breakdown, energy crisis, absence of the rule of law, rampant corruption, nepotism, intolerance, violence and terrorism and low quality of life of people are the major challenges faced by Pakistan today. The culture of greed and sycophancy seem to have become an acceptable way of life. Perhaps, Jinnah didn’t visualize that in the coming years, Pakistan would deviate from the path which was set by him and transform as a state viewed by the world as instable, corrupt and violent.

Vision for a better Pakistan, as articulated by Jinnah, needs to be modified in the light of new realities. Eight important characteristics of vision for a better future of Pakistan which can certainly bring a positive and qualitative change in the country are: i) providing compulsory and good quality education to all the school-going children of Pakistan regardless of their economic or social background, ii) providing the youths of Pakistan better employment opportunities without compromising on merit, iii) emancipation of women and utilizing their talent in a productive manner, iv) focusing on human development, particularly by building modern infrastructure, enhancing per capita income and gross domestic product, v) enforcing the rule of law and writ of the state, vi) eradicating corruption and nepotism at all levels by inculcating better work ethics and promoting tax culture, vii) upholding of merit and accountability in all the professions, viii) providing access to basic utilities, particularly clean and safe drinking water, electricity, gas, efficient and affordable public transport to the people of Pakistan, ix) following a policy of self-reliance by depending on national resources instead of seeking foreign aid and assistance, and x) an independent foreign policy which can rehabilitate self-esteem, honor, dignity and sovereignty of the country.

The characteristics mentioned above cannot be achieved unless a practical methodology is formulated by the national leadership of Pakistan with clear vision, commitment and dedication. One cannot expect Pakistan, which has gone downhill over the past several decades and is considered as a failing state, to seek positive transformation in the mode of governance unless there is a change in the way of life. Attitudes and behavior of people and those who wield power must change by pursuing an approach which gives preference to national interest instead of personal interests. Efficiency, honesty, tolerance, moderation and a sense of accountability, if inculcated in the behavior and attitude of the people, can go a long way in pulling the country out from the brink of predictable disaster.

How it can be done and what are the impediments to transform the vision of better Pakistan into a reality requires a major change in mindset of those who matter. Certainly there is no shortcut to achieve ten characteristics particularly when there is no dearth of talent, enterprise and hard work in Pakistan. In other countries also, where the challenges of human development, human security, corruption and nepotism were rampant, have progressed well and are better off today because of their leadership which provided their people a sense of direction for a better way of life.

The foremost impediment to achieve the goal for a better Pakistan is the mindset of the people and not just those who are in position of power. To a large extent, such a mindset is negative, less knowledge friendly, inward, authoritarian and accepts corruption and corrupt practices. Unlike societies, where the traditions of enlightenment, freedom, accountability and best practices in research and development shaped policies, in Pakistan, and for that matter in many post-colonial states, a major impediment for a better way of life has been the lack of ownership in terms of being responsible for protecting national assets. If analyzed historically, the British managed to colonize and control a huge landmass from the borders of Afghanistan to Myanmar and from the borders of Nepal to Sri Lanka for more than one century and with hardly 30,000 force because of internal divisions and the culture of greed among local people? When the British rule ended in August 1947 in the Indian sub-continent, its legacy remained, particularly in the new state of Pakistan where tribal-feudal culture based on patronage and power remained intact. That culture is considered as a major impediment for a better Pakistan.

On May 18, 2011, the New York based Asia Society released its study on “Pakistan 2020 – Vision for building a better future.” The study compiled by a group of eminent American and Pakistani experts examined in detail issues faced by Pakistan and suggested a road map to build a better Pakistan by the year 2020. Seven core issues which were considered essential by the study along with the suggestions for a better Pakistan were: strengthening democratic institutions, strengthening the rule of law, improving human development and social services, especially in health and education, developing the energy infrastructure, assisting the victims of the 2010 flood in their recovery, improving internal security and advancing peace process with India. The study also argued that, “preventing Pakistan from further deterioration will require a sustained, long term commitment from the government of Pakistan, the United States and other international stakeholders to promote genuine reform in the coming decade.”

Political parties, whether in the government or in the opposition will have to change their mindset by playing a leadership role for the development and progress of the country, instead of engaging in political squabbling and rhetoric with each other. Unfortunately, to a large extent, political parties are run without a professional approach. Lack of accountability in the rank and file of political parties followed by the absence of commitment to solve the issues at the grassroots’ level is a major obstacle to transform Pakistan as a success story..

Till the time, criminalization of politics is eliminated and a civilized culture of political behavior is established, Pakistan will continue to face a huge credibility gap and crisis in the functioning and performance of political parties. Pakistanis also must realize that their social backwardness, low quality of life, societal violence and economic predicament has much to do with their own failure to inculcate habits which are responsible, honest, knowledge friendly and conform to proper work ethics. If bad governance, corruption, nepotism, inefficiency, intolerance and militancy are common in Pakistan then it is a reflection of the attitude and behavior of people which conforms to the feudal and tribal culture. The reason why the military usurped power four times (1958, 1969, 1977 and 1999) was primarily because of mediocre or below mediocre political leadership which failed to put its own house in order.

Those holding positions, particularly of vital responsibilities must make sure that they formulate and implement policies which can eradicate corruption and mobilize resources for providing good quality of life to people. The elimination of VVIP culture is the most essential requirement on the part of elites who must make sure that they are not above the law and will prevent the wastage of national resources for personal patronage and benefits. Ironically, no government in Pakistan, whether civilian, military or quasi military has been able to refrain from practicing and promoting VVIP culture. With 140 billion dollars of foreign and domestic debt, low per capita income, huge shortage of energy resources, acute poverty, illiteracy, severe unemployment, periodic acts of violence and terrorism and lowest in human development index, Pakistan is in deep crisis and its elites must act in a responsible manner in order to prevent its transformation from a failing to a failed state.

Is it not true that three major adventures which caused Pakistan a great deal of harm and damaged its position happened when the military was at the helm of affairs or had a dominant role in matters of statecraft? Operation Gibraltar, which was launched in the summer of 1965 to support what was perceived as Kashmiri uprising by sending forces across the ceasefire line was a fiasco and led to the outbreak of September 1965 Indo-Pak war. “Operation Search Light” which was launched on March 25, 1971 to suppress what was called anti-Pakistan elements in the then East Pakistan led to the dismemberment of the country and the emergence of Bangladesh. The Kargil operation in the winter of 1998-99, which was launched during the second term of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif aimed to capture strategically located heights of Kargil and Drass mountains across the line of control for tactical reasons was a source of great embarrassment to Pakistan because it miscalculated the Indian response and finally had to agree to New Delhi’s terms that Pakistan withdraw its regular and irregular forces from such heights. Furthermore, as a result of Kargil crisis, the atmosphere of Indo-Pak goodwill and amity which was created as a result of the then Indian Prime Minister Atal Vehari Vajpaee’s visit to Lahore in February 1999 was vitiated and the two nuclear armed neighbors were at the brink of a war. It was the result of the mediation of the then U.S. President Bill Clinton when Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif visited Washington on July 4, 1999 that war in South Asia was averted. It means, military needs to rethink its policy of adventures, both outside and inside the country.

The new government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif is facing the daunting task of dealing with issues which are critical in nature. The government must enforce economic and educational emergency so that performance of factories, industries, financial and educational institutions is improved. Likewise, the rule of law needs to be enforced by de-weaponizing Pakistan and exercising zero tolerance against those who are found in acts of violence and terrorism in the country. Without political will and determination on the part of those who matter, the vision for a better Pakistan, as articulated by Jinnah cannot be transformed into a reality.

The writer is Professor of International Relations at the University of Karachi and Director, Programme on Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution.

amoonis@hotmail.com

Science and technology is a growing field in Pakistan and has played an important role in the country's development since its founding. Pakistan has a large pool of scientists, engineers, doctors, and technicians assuming an active role in science and technology. Liaquat Ali Khan the first Prime Minister of Pakistan (in office 15 August 1947 – 16 October 1951), made various reforms to initiate improvement in higher education and scientific research. The real growth in science in Pakistan occurred after the establishment of the Higher education Commission in 2002 which supported science in a big way and also became the major sponsor of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences under the leadership of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman FRS[1]. The first IT policy and implementation strategy was approved under the leadership of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman FRS, then Federal Minister of Science & technology, in August 2000 which laid the foundations of the development of this sector[2] On the request of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman Intel initiated a nation wide programme to train school teachers in Information and Communication technologies in March 2002 which has led to the training of 220,000 school teachers in 70 districts and cities across Pakistan[3]. A 15 year tax holiday was approved on the recommendation of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman FRS which has resulted in growth of IT business from $ 30 million in 2001 to over $ 3 billion[4][5].

Chemistry remains the strongest subject in the country with the International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences playing the lead role with the largest postgraduate research program in the country having about 600 students enrolled for PhD.[6].[7]Physics (theoretical, nuclear, particle, laser, and quantum physics), material science, metallurgy (engineering), biology, and mathematics, are some of the other fields in which Pakistani scientists have contributed. From the 1960s and onwards, the Pakistani government made the development and advancement of science a national priority and showered top scientists with honours. While the government has made efforts to make science a part of national development, there have been criticisms of federal policies, such as the government's dissolution of the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan (HEC)— an administrative body that supervised research in science — in 2011. This attempted dissolution failed to materialise because of a Supreme Court of Pakistan decision on a petition filed by Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman, former Federal Minister of Science & technology and former founding Chairman of the Higher Education Commission.[8] Pakistani scientists have also won acclaim in mathematics and in several branches of physical science, notably theoretical and nuclear physics, chemistry, and astronomy. Professor Abdus Salam, a theoretical physicist won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1979, being the first and only Pakistani to date to have received the honor. Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman an organic chemist was elected as Fellow of Royal Society (London) in 2006 in recognition of his contributions in the field of natural products thereby becoming the first scientist from the Islamic world to receive this honour for work carried out within an Islamic country.[9]. The contributions of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman to uplift science and higher education in Pakistan were internationally acknowledged and a tribute paid to him in the world's leading science journal Nature that termed him as "a force of nature"[10].

Technology is most highly developed in nuclear physics and explosives engineering, where the arms race with India convinced policy makers to set aside sufficient resources for research. Due to a programme directed by Munir Ahmad Khan and the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), Pakistan is the seventh nation to have developed an atomic bomb, which the global intelligence community believes it had done by 1983 (see Kirana-I), nine years after India (see Pokhran-I). Pakistan first publicly tested its devices (see Chagai-I and Chagai-II) on 28 and 30 May 1998, two weeks after India carried out its own tests (See Pokhran-II).[11]

Space exploration was hastily developed, in 1990 Pakistan launched Badr-1 followed by Badr-II in 2001. Since the 1980s, the space programme dedicated itself to military technologies (Space weapons programme and Integrated missile systems), and maintains a strong programme developed for military applications.

Pakistan is an associate member of CERN, one of the few countries to obtain that status.[12]

History[edit]

Main article: History of science and technology in the Indian subcontinent

The Scientific and Technological Research Division (S&TR) was established in 1964 for (i) coordination and implementation of national science and technology policy; (ii) promotion and coordination of research and utilization of the results of research; (iii) development, production and utilization of nuclear energy; and (iv) coordination of utilization of scientific and technological manpower. The Division was administratively responsible for National Science Council, the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, the Atomic Energy Commission and the Space and Upper Atmospheric Research Committee. The Ministry of Science and Technology (MoS&T) has been functioning since 1972. It is the national focal point and enabling arm of Government of Pakistan for planning, coordinating and directing efforts; to initiate and launch scientific and technological programs and projects as per national agenda for sound and sustainable Science & Technology Research base for the socio-economic development. From the areas of industrial development to renewable energy and rural development, the Ministry suggests technological development for higher growth-rates and to improve standards of living. Its principal focus is on building Pakistan's technological competence and developing a larger pool of human resources to reverse brain drain, and for integrating the existing technological infrastructure for strengthening of technology institutions, effective governance of S&TR and enhancing the capacity of indigenous innovation systems.

State controlled science[edit]

Unlike some Western countries, the majority of the research programmes are conducted not at the institutions (such as universities) but at specially set up research facilities and institutes.[13] These institutes are performed under the government's Ministry of Science that overlooks the development and promotion of science in the country, while others are performed under the Pakistan Academy of Sciences, other specialized academies and even the research arms of various government ministries.[13] At first, the core of fundamental science was the Pakistan Academy of Sciences, originally set up in 1953 and moved from Karachi to Islamabad in 1964.[14] The Pakistan Academy of Sciences has a large percentage of researchers in the natural sciences, particularly physics.[14] From 1947 to 1971, the research was being conducted independently with no government influence.[14] The High Tension Laboratories (HTL) at the Government College University, Lahore (GCU) was established by R. M. Chaudhry with funds given by the British government in the 1950s.[15] In 1967, Professor Abdus Salam led the foundation of the Institute of Theoretical Physics (ITP) at the Quaid-e-Azam University, and the establishment of the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) and the Centre for Nuclear Studies; all were independently established by Pakistan's academic scientists with financial assistance provided by European countries.[15] However, after Zulfikar Ali Bhutto became President, he took control of scientific research in 1972 as part of his intensified socialist reforms and policies.[15] With advice taken from Dr. Mubashir Hassan, Bhutto established the Ministry of Science with Ishrat Hussain Usmani, a bureaucrat with a doctorate in atomic physics.[13][15]

During the 1950s and 1960s, both West Pakistan and East Pakistan had their own academies of science, with the East Pakistan relying on West Pakistan to allot the funds.[13] Medical research is coordinated and funded by the Health Ministry[16] and agricultural research is led by Agriculture Ministry[17] and likewise, the research on environmental sciences is headed by the Environment Ministry.[15][18]

An aftermath of the 1971 Indo-Pakistan Winter War was that President Bhutto increased scientific funding by the Government by more than 200%, mostly dedicated to military research and development. Bhutto, with the help of his Science Adviser Dr. Salam, gathered hundreds of Pakistani scientists working abroad to develop what became Pakistan's atom bomb. This crash programme was directed at first by Dr. Abdus Salam until 1974, and then directed and led by Dr. Munir Ahmad Khan from 1974 until 1991. For the first time an effort was made by the government when Pakistan's citizens made advancements in nuclear physics, theoretical physics and mathematics. In the 1980s, General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq radicalized science by enforcing pseudoscience - by his Muslim fundamentalists as administrators - in Pakistan's schools and universities. Zia-ul-Haq later promoted Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan to export the sensitive industrial (military) technologies to Libya, Iran, and North Korea. Because of government control, academic research in Pakistan remains highly classified and unknown to the international scientific community. There have been several failed attempts made by foreign powers to infiltrate the country's research facilities to learn how much research has progressed and how much clandestine knowledge has been gained by Pakistan's scientists.[19] One of the notable cases was in the 1970s, when the Libyan intelligence made an unsuccessful attempt to gain knowledge on critical aspects of nuclear technology, and crucial mathematical fast neutron calculations in theoretical physics. It was thwarted by the ISI Directorate for Joint Intelligence Technical (JIT).[19] From the 1980s and onward, both Russian intelligence and the Central Intelligence Agency made several attempts to access Pakistan's research but because of the ISI, they were unable to gain any information.[19] From the period 1980 to 2004, research in science fell short until General Pervez Mushrraf established the Higher Education Commission (HEC) which heightened the contribution of science and technology in Pakistan. The major boost to science in Pakistan occurred under the leadership of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman FRS as the founding Chairman of the Higher Education Commission when about 11,000 students were sent to top universities abroad for PhD and postdoctoral training. This has resulted in the enormous increase in research output of Pakistan in Impact factor journals from about 800 per year in the year 2000 to over 12,000 publications per year[20]. This drew positive comments from Thomson Reuters about the sharp increase in highly cited papers in comparison to Brazil, Russia, India and China[21]Major research was undertaken by Pakistan's institutes in the field of natural sciences.[13] In 2003, the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Government of Pakistan and the United States Department of State signed a comprehensive Science and Technology Cooperation Agreement that established a framework to increase cooperation in science, technology, engineering and education for mutual benefit and peaceful purposes between the science and education communities in both countries. In 2005, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) joined with the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) and the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan to support the joint Pakistan-U.S. Science and Technology Cooperation Program. Beginning in 2008, the U.S. Department of State joined USAID as U.S. co-sponsor of the program. This program, which is being implemented by the National Academy of Sciences on the U.S. side, is intended to increase the strength and breadth of cooperation and linkages between Pakistan scientists and institutions with counterparts in the United States.[22] However, with unfavourable situations,[clarification needed] research declined. In 2011, the government dissolved the HEC and the control of education was taken over by governmental ministries.[13]. Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman FRS filed a petition in the Supreme Court of Pakistan against the government action. The Supreme Court decided in favour of the stand taken by Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman, and the federal nature of the Higher Education Commission was preserved[23].

Scientific research institutions (SRI)[edit]

See also: List of research institutes in Pakistan

A large part of research is conducted by science research institutes with semi-controlled by the Government.

Notable scientists[edit]

Main article: List of Pakistani scientists

Ranking of Pakistani Scientists by Pakistan Council for Science & Technology[edit]

  • The Pakistan Council for Science and Technology has published a national ranking of the best scientists in the country[25]

Nobel Prize[edit]

UNESCO Science Prize[edit]

  • Atta-ur-Rahman - winner of the UNESCO Science Prize for pioneering contributions in natural product chemistry in 1999. He is the first scientist from the Islamic world to have won this prize.

Fellows of Royal Society, London[edit]

Academician Chinese Academy of Sciences[edit]

Friendship Award of China[edit]

Fellow Korean Academy of Sciences[edit]

Grosse Goldene Ehrenzeischen am Bande, Austria[edit]

Khwarazmi Prize[edit]

Fellow Chinese Chemical Society[edit]

Albert Einstein Award[edit]

  • Riazuddin — winner of Einstein Award (2000) for his contribution in theoretical physics, notably the contribution in neutrinos.
  • Mujahid Kamran — winner of Einstein Award (2001) for the leading research in quantum mechanics.

Einstein Professorship[edit]

  • Atta-ur-Rahman - awarded by Chinese Academy of Sciences in recognition of his contributions in the field of natural product chemistry

Highest National Order of Excellence[edit]

Scientists who are awarded the highest hierarchy of Pakistan, the Nishan-e-Imtiaz (Order of Excellence).

  • Abdus Salam — honored in 1979 for outstanding contribution in developing the Pakistan science.
  • Ishfaq Ahmad — honored with Nishan-e-Imtiaz (1998) for his contribution in nuclear physics.
  • Abdul Qadeer Khan — honored twice (1996 and 1999) for developing the gas-centrifuge programme.
  • Atta-ur-Rahman — honored in 2002 for his edge leading research in Natural product chemistry.
  • Samar Mubarakmand — honored in 2003 for the contribution in space programme and accelerator physics.
  • Ishrat Hussain Usmani — honored in 1998 for his enhancing the science in Pakistan.
  • Munir Ahmad Khan — honored in 2012 for his contribution to physics and nuclear engineering in Pakistan.

Order of Crescent[edit]

Scientists who are conferred with second highest honored, the Hilal-i-Imtiaz (Order of Crescent).

National prizes[edit]

The most prestigious government prize awarded for achievements in science and technology is Nishan-e-Imtiaz (or in English Order of Excellence). While Hilal-i-Imtiaz, Sitara-i-Imtiaz, and Tamgha-e-Imtiaz occupies a unique role and importance in Pakistan's civil society.

Achievements[edit]

In 1961, international achievements first recorded in 1961 when Pakistan became the third[clarification needed] Asian country and tenth[clarification needed] in the world when the Rehbar-I — a solid fuel expandable rocket— was launched from Sonmani Spaceport. The Rehbar-I was developed and launched under the leadership of Dr. W. J. M. Turowicz, a Polish-Pakistani scientist and then project director of this program. Since then, the program began taking flights which continued until the 1970s.

A major breakthrough occurred in 1979, when the Nobel Prize Committee awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics to Abdus Salam, for formulating the electroweak theory — a theory that provides the basis of unification of weak nuclear force and electromagnetic force. In 1990, the Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) launched the first, and locally designed, communication satellite, Badr-1, from Xichang Satellite Launch Center (XLSC) of the People's Republic of China. With the launch, Pakistan became the first Muslim majority country to have developed an artificial robotic satellite, and was the second South Asian state to have launched its satellite, second to India.

One of the widely reported achievements was in 1998, when the country joined the nuclear club. In response to India's nuclear tests on 11 May and 13 May 1998, under codename Operation Shakti, in the long-constructed Pokhran Test Range (PTR). Under Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) conducted five simultaneous tests at the Chagai Hills under codename Chagai-I on 28 May1998. PAEC carried out another test in the Kharan Desert, under Chagai-II, meaning it had tested six devices in under one week. With the testing of these atomic devices, Pakistan became the seventh nuclear power in the world, and the only Muslim-majority country to have mastered the technology. On 13 August 2011, SUPARCO launched its first indigenously developed geosynchronous satellite, Paksat-1R also from XLSC in China.

In 2006 Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman was elected as Fellow of Royal Society (London), thereby becoming the first scientist from the Muslim world to be so honoured in recognition of researches and contributions carried out within an Islamic country.[9] He has major contributions to the development of science and technology as Chairman Higher Education Commission during 2002-2008 which have resulted in a significant increase in research publications in Pakistan from only about 800 research papers in Impact Factor journals in 2002 to over 11,000 publications in 2016 the quality of which has been recognised by ThomsonReuters.[27] The International Centre for Chemical and Biological Sciences at University of Karachi which has developed as a leading research centre in the region under the leadership of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman FRS was designated as a UNESCO Centre of Excellence in 2016.[28] Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman was awarded the high Civil Award of the Government of Austria (the ‘Grosses goldenes Ehrenzeichen am Bande’) in 2007 in recognition for his contributions for uplifting science in Pakistan,[29] and the Government of China also honoured him with the highest Award for Foreigners (Friendship Award) in recognition of his eminent contributions.[30]. The largest university of Malaysia, Universiti Teknologi Mara, established a Research Centre entitled " Dr. Atta-ur-Rahman Research Institute of natural Product Discovery" to honour this great Muslim scientist for uplifting science in Pakistan and in the Muslim world in his capacity as Coordinator General COMSTECH, a Ministerial Committee comprising 57 Ministers of Science and Technology of the 57 OIC member countries[31],[32].

In 2017, a Chinese study published in Scientometrics (journal) revealed that Pakistan's research growth rate and time required to double the number of publications is superior than that of USA, China and India. [33]

Information technology[edit]

Main article: Information technology in Pakistan

The rapid progress made by Pakistan in the IT and telecom sector during 2000-2002, under Professor Atta-ur-Rahman FRS as Federal Minister, led to the spread of internet from 29 cities in the year 2000 to 1,000 cities, towns and villages by 2002, and the spread of fiber from 40 cities to 400 cities in this period. The first IT policy and implementation strategy was approved under the leadership of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman FRS, then Federal Minister of Science & technology, in August 2000 which laid the foundations of the development of this sector[34] The internet prices were reduced sharply from $87,000 per month for a 2 MB line to only $3000 per month and later to $90 per month. The mobile telephony boom also occurred under the leadership of Atta-ur-Rahman, and it began by the drastic lowering of prices, bringing in of competition (Ufone) and changing the system so that the person receiving a call was no longer required to pay any charges. A satellite was placed in space (Paksat 1) at a cost of only $4 million. These changes in the IT infra-structure proved invaluable for the Higher education sector. Pakistan Educational Research Network was set up in 2004 through which one of the finest digital libraries was established in universities. In 2002, few university libraries could subscribe to a handful of journals. Today every student in every public sector university has free access to over 20,000 international journals with back volumes and over 60,000 books from 250 international publishers.[35] As of 2011, Pakistan has over 20 million internet users and is ranked as one of the top countries that have registered a high growth rate in internet penetration. Overall, it has the 15th largest population of internet users in the world. In the fiscal year 2012-2013, the Government of Pakistan aims to spend 4.6 billion rupees (Rs.) on information technology projects, with emphasis on e-government, human resource and infrastructure development.[36] Pakistan’s information technology industry has gone through a dramatic change, and the country has taken the lead in adopting some technologies while also setting an example for others in global best practices.[citation needed] Matters relating to the IT industry are overseen and regulated by the Ministry of Information Technology of the Government of Pakistan. The IT industry is regarded as a successful sector of Pakistan economically, even during the financial crisis.[clarification needed] The Government of Pakistan has given numerous favors to IT investors in the country since the last decade, that resulted in the development of the IT sector. In the years 2003-2005 the country's IT exports saw a rise of about fifty percent and amounted a total of about 48.5 million USD. The World Economic Forum, assessing the development of Information and Communication Technology in the country ranked Pakistan 102nd among 144 countries in the Global Information Technology report of 2012.[citation needed]

Golden age of science[edit]

The real growth of science in Pakistan occurred under the leadership of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman during 2000-2008 when he was Federal Minister of Science & Technology and later Chairman of Higher Education Commission (HEC) with the status of Federal Minister.The chairperson of the Senate Standing Committee on Education announced the first 6 years of HEC under Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman as "Pakistan's golden period".[37] Recently ThomsonReuters in an independent assessment of Pakistan's progress in international publications has acknowledged that in the last decade there has been a fourfold increase in international publications and a tenfold growth in highly cited papers, statistics that were better than the BRIC countries[38]

The remarkable transformation of science and higher education under the leadership of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman as Federal Minister of Science & Technology and later as Chairman of Higher Education Commission with status of a Federal Minister during the period 2000-2008 was applauded by many independent experts and he was called a "force of nature" in a review published in Nature[39]

Dr. Abdus Salam the first Pakistani winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics was the father of physics research in Pakistan.[40] Under the watchful direction of Salam, mathematicians and physicists tackled the greatest and outstanding problems in physics and mathematics.[40] From 1960 to 1974, Salam was responsible for leading the research at its maximum point. This prompted the international recognition of Pakistani mathematicians and physicists, allowing them to conduct their research at CERN.[40] Salam and his students (Riazuddin, Fayyazuddin and others) revolutionized particle and theoretical physics, are thought to be modern pioneers of particle physics at all aspect of it. Pure research was undertaken in Quantum electrodynamics, Quantum field theory, protonic decay and major fields in physics, were pioneered by Pakistan's scientists. With the establishment of nuclear and neutron institutes in the country, Pakistan's mathematicians introduced complex mathematical applications to study and examine the behaviours of elements during the fission process. Salimuzzaman Siddiqui, Atta-ur-Rahman and Iqbal Choudhary are the pioneering personalities for studying the isolation of unique chemical compounds from the Neem (Azadirachta indica), Rauwolfia, periwinkle ("Catharanthus roseus"), ("Buxus papillosa") and various other plants.

The 1960s and the 1970s period is regarded as the initial rise of Pakistan's science, which gained an international reputation in the different science communities of the world.[40] During this period, scientists contributed to the fields of, particularly, Natural Product Chemistry, theoretical, particle, mathematical, and nuclear physics, and other major and sub fields of Chemistry and Physics.[40] The research was preceded by such scientista as Riazuddin, Ishfaq Ahmad, Salimuzzaman Siddiqui, Atta-ur-Rahman and Samar Mubarakmand. However the major growth in scientific output occurred after the establishment of the Higher Education Commission which was accompanied by a 60 fold increase in funding for science

International Praise[edit]

Since the Higher Education Commission (HEC) reforms have been carried out in 2002, HEC has received praise from international higher education observers. Rahman, founding Chairman of HEC, has received a number of international awards for the transformation of the higher education sector under his leadership.[25] German academic, Dr. Wolfgang Voelter of Tübingen University in Germany over viewed the performance of HEC under the leadership of Rahman and described the reforms in HEC as "A miracle happened." After teaching and visiting in 15 universities of Pakistan, Voelter wrote that the "scenario of education, science and technology in Pakistan has changed dramatically, as never before in the history of the country.[25] The chairperson of the Senate Standing Committee on Education recently announced the first 6 years of HEC under Rahman as "Pakistan's golden period in higher education".[37]

American academic Prof. Fred M. Hayward has also praised the reform process undertaken by Pakistan, admitting that "since 2002, a number of extraordinary changes have taken place."[41] Hayward pointed our that "over the last six years almost 4,000 scholars have participated in PhD programs in Pakistan in which more than 600 students have studied in foreign PhD programs."[27] The HEC instituted major upgrades for scientific laboratories, rehabilitating existing educational facilities, expanding the research support, and overseeing the development of one of the best digital libraries in the region.[27] Seeking to meeting the international standard, a quality assurance and accreditation process was also established, of which, ~95% of students sent abroad for training returned, an unusually high result for a developing country in response to improved salaries and working conditions at universities as well as bonding and strict follow-up by the commission, Fulbright, and others."[41]

The HEC's reforms were also applauded by the United Nations Commission on Science and Technology for Development (UNCSTD) which reported that the "progress made was breath-taking and has put Pakistan ahead of comparable countries in numerous aspects."[42] In limited time, the HEC established and provided free access to scientific literature by high-speed Internet for all universities, the upgrade of research equipment accessible across the country, and the programme of establishing new universities of science and technology, including science parks attracted the foreign investors, prove the efficiency and the long-term benefits for the country enabled.[29] The UNCSTD has closely monitored the development in Pakistan in the past years, coming to the conclusion that HEC's program initiated under the leadership of Rahman is a "best-practice" example for developing countries aiming at building their human resources and establishing an innovative, technology-based economy."[42]. According to an article published in the leading science journal Nature "Rahman's strong scientific background, enthusiasm for reform and impressive ability to secure cash made him a hit at home and abroad. "It really was an anomaly that we had a person of that stature with that kind of backing,----Atta-ur-Rahman was a force of nature[43]

Rahman has won four international awards for the revolutionary changes in the higher education sector brought in the HEC. Nature, a leading science journal, has also written a number of editorials and articles about the transformation brought about in Pakistan in the higher education sector under the HEC. In an article entitled "Pakistan Threat to Indian Science" published in the leading daily newspaper Hindustan Times, India, it has been reported that Professor C. N. R. Rao, Chairman of the Indian Prime Minister's Scientific Advisory Council made a presentation to the Indian Prime Minister at the rapid progress made by Pakistan in the higher education sector under the leadership of Rahman, Chairman, Higher Education Commission. It was reported that as a result of the reforms, "Pakistan may soon join China in giving India serious competition in science". "Science is a lucrative profession in Pakistan. It has tripled the salaries of its scientists in the last few years."[44]

Challenges[edit]

Pakistan has been known internationally for some of its major achievements in science and technology such as successful development of media and military technologies and a growing base of doctors and engineers, as well as its new influx of software engineers who have been actively contributing to Pakistan's potential in the Information Technology industry. Due to present situation in Pakistan, around 3,000 Pakistani doctors emigrate to Western economies in search of suitable employment opportunities and hence contribute intellectually to the health sector of developed countries and at the same time leaving the effects of a brain drain in Pakistan.[citation needed]

Despite some progressive scientific achievements, Pervez Hoodbhoy published a report on scientific output in Pakistan in which he pointed out that research and scientific activities are significantly lower than many other developing countries[45] Hoodbhoy cites that Pakistan has produces fewer papers than neighboring India.[46]. The contentions of Hoodbhoy have been strongly refuted by neutral international experts who have praised the tremendous increase in research output from pakistan after the establishment of the Higher Education Commission in 2002,[27][47][48]. In a report published by Thomson Reuters in 2016, it has been concluded that the rate of increase of highly cited papers in international journals from Pakistan is higher than that from Brazil, Russia, India or China[49]. Also, in November 2017, a Chinese study published in Scientometrics (journal) revealed that Pakistan's research growth rate and time required to double the number of publications is superior than that of USA, China and India. [50]

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See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^http://www.hec.gov.pk/english/Pages/Home.aspx
  2. ^http://www.moit.gov.pk/moit/userfiles1/file/policies/Pakistan%20IT%20Policy%20%20Action%20Plan%202000.pdf
  3. ^https://ictec.wordpress.com/2010/01/21/intel-ict-programs-in-pakistan/
  4. ^https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/197985-Pakistan-at-a-crossroads
  5. ^http://www.sciencemag.org/careers/2002/09/science-and-technology-pakistan-way-forward
  6. ^http://iccs.edu/
  7. ^http://www.technologyreview.pk/higher-education-past-present-future/
  8. ^https://tribune.com.pk/story/148178/sc-rejects-petitions-against-hec-devolution/
  9. ^ abhttps://royalsociety.org/people/atta-ur-rahman-12136/
  10. ^http://www.nature.com/news/2010/100922/full/467378a.html?s=news_rss
  11. ^Helmenstine, Ph.D., Anne Marie. "This Day in Science History - May 28 - Pakistan Goes Nuclear". Anne Marie Helmenstine of the chemistry.com. 
  12. ^Pakistan officially becomes an associate member of CERN
  13. ^ abcdefMoST, Ministry of Science and Technology. "Ministry of Science and Technology". Government of Pakistan. Directorate for Electronic Government (DEG)and the Directorate for the Scientific and Technological Research Division (STRD). 
  14. ^ abcPAS, Pakistan Academy of Science. "Introduction". PAS Press Directorate. Directorate for the Information and Public Press of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences (PAS). 
  15. ^ abcdeAhmad, Hameed Ahmad (November 2004). "Education, Science and Technology in Developing Countries: Some Thoughts and Recollection: §Higher Education in Pakistan: Current and Future Scenarios"(PDF). COMSATS Journal of Science. Commission on Science and Technology for Sustainable Development in the South (COMSATS) Headquarters: Dr. Hameed Ahmad Khan, Doctor of Science in (Astroparticle Physics) and Doctor of Philosophy in (Nuclear Physics) from the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom. 1 (1): 212. Retrieved 2011. 
  16. ^(MH), Ministry of Health (Pakistan). "Ministry of Health". Government of Pakistan and the Ministry of Health of Pakistan. Directorate for the Electronic Government (DEG) and the Directorate for the Health Research and Public Research and Development (HERPURD). 
  17. ^(minfal), Ministry of Food and Agriculture. "Ministry of Agriculture". Electronic Government Directorate and Directorate for the Agriculture Research and Applied Science (ARAS). 
  18. ^(moenv), Ministry of Environment. "Ministry of Environment". Electronic Government Directorate and Directorate for the Environmental Research and Applied Science (ERAS). 
  19. ^ abcBrigadier-General Syed A. I. Tirmazi (1985). Profiles of Intelligence. Combined Printers. Library of Congress Catalogue No. 95-930455.
Badr-1 was the first artificial and the first digital communication satellite launched by Pakistan's supreme national space authority – the SUPARCO – in 1990.
National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
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