History Of Volleyball Research Paper

This was How Volleyball was Introduced – Facts and Information About the Game

The game of volleyball, originally called “mintonette,” was invented in 1895 by William G. Morgan after the invention of basketball only four years before. Morgan, a graduate of the Springfield College of the YMCA, designed the game to be a combination of basketball, baseball, tennis, and handball.

The first volleyball net, borrowed from tennis, was only 6’6″ high (though you need to remember that the average American was shorter in the nineteenth century).

The offensive style of setting and spiking was first demonstrated in the Philippines in 1916. Over the years that followed, it became clear that standard rules were needed for tournament play, and thus the USVBA (United States Volleyball Association) was formed in 1928.

Latest Volleyball News from the NCAA and NAIA.

Two years later, the first two-man beach volleyball game was played, though the professional side of the sport did not emerge until much later. Not surprisingly, the first beach volleyball association appeared in California (1965), and the professional players united under the auspices of the AVP (American Volleyball Professionals) in 1983.

During the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics, American men and women took gold and silver medals in indoor volleyball competitions. Four years later at the Olympics in Korea, the men once again scored gold. Starting in 1996, two-man beach volleyball was officially introduced to the Olympics. Today, there are more than 800 million volleyball players worldwide, 46 million of them in the U.S.

Timeline of Significant Volleyball Events

In 1900, a special ball was designed for the sport.

In 1916, in the Philippines, an offensive style of passing the ball in a high trajectory to be struck by another player (the set and spike) were introduced.

In 1917, the game was changed from 21 to 15 points.

In 1920, three hits per side and back row attack rules were instituted.

In 1922, the first YMCA national championships were held in Brooklyn, NY. Twenty-seven teams from 11 states were represented.

In 1928, it became clear that tournaments and rules were needed, so the United States Volleyball Association (USVBA, now USA Volleyball) was formed. The first U.S. Open was staged, as the field was open to non-YMCA squads.

In 1930, the first two-man beach game was played.

In 1934, national volleyball referees were approved and recognized.

In 1937, at the AAU convention in Boston, action was taken to recognize the U.S. Volleyball Association as the official national governing body in the U.S.

In 1947, the Federation Internationale De Volley-Ball (FIVB) was founded.

In 1948, the first two-man beach tournament was held.

In 1949, the initial World Championships were held in Prague, Czechoslovakia.

In 1964, volleyball was introduced to the Olympic Games in Tokyo.

In 1965, the California Beach Volleyball Association (CBVA) was formed.

In 1974, the World Championships in Mexico were telecast in Japan.

In 1975, the U.S. National Women’s team began a year-round training regime in Pasadena, Texas (moved to Colorado Springs in 1979, Coto de Caza and Fountain Valley, CA, in 1980, and San Diego, CA, in 1985).

In 1977, the U.S. National Men’s Team began a year-round training regime in Dayton, Ohio (moved to San Diego, CA, in 1981).

In 1983, the Association of Volleyball Professionals (AVP) was formed.

In 1984, the U.S. won their first medals at the Olympics in Los Angeles. The men won the gold, and the women the silver.

In 1986, the Women’s Professional Volleyball Association (WPVA) was formed.

In 1988, the U.S. men repeated the gold in the Olympics in Korea.

In 1990, the World League was created.

In 1995, the sport of volleyball was 100 years old!

In 1996, two-person beach volleyball became an Olympic sport.

Volleyball Camps

We take a look at the National Collegiate Scouting Association(NCSA).  NCSA Reviews.


This paper is concerned with the games Basketball and Volleyball. It traces their histories back to the early roots of the games and creates an outline of how they developed into their present form and status. The paper emphasizes the chronological succession of the events and gives an overview about the most important information that is available about volleyball. The History of Basketball and Volleyball From its Early Origins to its Status Today.

The History Of Basketball

Ancient Predecessors

In 100 B.C. until 1100 A.D. the empire of the Maya was spread over big parts of Middle and Northern America. Findings on the peninsula Yucatan/Mexico prove that the Mayas played a certain game for cultic reasons in which a rubber ball was shot through a ring that was placed in approximately 30 feet height at a wall. To get the ball through this ring the players had to use their hips or shoulders. Resulting from these complicated circumstances, the first point was usually made after several days of playing (Geschichte des Korbballs, 2004). Also, other ancient cultures used to play similar games. Under the name Top-Tapok it was also known to the Aztecs and the Inca. The Normans played this game and they called it Soule-Picarde and even old Persian texts confirm that forms of basketball existed there (Deutscher Basketball-Bund, 2004). With the fall of these early empires, the game of shooting a ball though a ring was forgotten.

Modern Basketball

A long time after that, in 1891, the modern basketball was invented. The idea was born when a young Canadian boy, later known worldwide as Dr. James Naismith, “played a simple child's game known as duck-on-a-rock outside his one-room schoolhouse.” (History of Basketball,2004) The object of that game was to hit a duck off a large rock by tossing stones at it. Instead of strength, much throwing skill was needed to get a point in this game. After having studied at McGill University in Montreal, Canada and being athletic director at this same University, Naismith moved to Springfield, Massachusetts to join the YMCA Training School there. Being a physical educator he was dealing with the problem that his students and workers could not play sports outside in winter and that the rooms for indoor sports where rather small (History of Basketball, 2004). His primary goal was to invent a game that, like duck-on-a-rock, did not rely on physical strength only, but was useful to develop the player’s motor skills (History of Basketball, 2004).

The result was a fairly simple game, where a soccer ball was tossed into a peach basket hanging high on a wall. He was not aware of the similar games that already existed long before he was born. Because one player had to climb up to the basket with a ladder in order to remove the ball after a point was scored, soon the bottoms of the peach baskets were removed in order to increase the speed of the game (Wilkes, 1982, p. 68).

In the beginning basketball had a set of only thirteen rules. After each point the game started with a jump ball at the center of the court. Running with the ball in any form (including dribbling) was forbidden. It had to be thrown from the same spot where the player caught it – “allowance [was] made for a man running at good speed.” (History of Basketball, 2004) This seems to be the origin of what is later called the two-step- rule. Also hard physical contact was not allowed, since it would give stronger players an advantage. Despite the borders of the court no special zones existed. If the ball was out, the first player to grab the ball could throw it back into the game (History of Basketball, 2-2-04).

Changes in the rules.

Basketball quickly became popular. Having been invented in 1891, by 1892 Yale already formed a team. One year later other universities followed, and only four years after that the first intercollegiate games were played (Wilkes, 1982, p. 68). While quickly becoming popular, the rules also had to be refined and adapted. In the early 1930s the rule to restart the game at the center of the court has been deleted in order to increase the speed of the game and to make it more interesting for the audience. Also, certain time limitations underwent changes. While the first set of rules only contained a five second rule for throwing the ball back into the field if it was out. Soon another 10-second rule was established again to increase the speed of the game. This rule made it necessary to cross the midline of the court within the first ten seconds of play. In spite of most teams using this rule, some high-school girls teams played with a different 30 seconds rule instead. This rule obliged the players to shoot at the basket within the first 30 seconds the team has the ball (Wilkes, 1982, p. 69). Versions of both of these rules are still in use. As the game was played all over the world the great advantages of tall players to reach the basket became apparent. As a reaction to that a series of rule changes occurred. First, the free-throw lane was invented and marked on the court. Offensive players now could only be in that area for three seconds at most. Later, this free-throw lane was widened from originally six to twelve feet (Wilkes, 1982, p. 69).

The Spread of Basketball

As I already said, modern basketball quickly became very popular in the United States after its invention in 1891. However, its popularity was not bound to cultural circumstances, but rapidly gained importance all over the world. This is mainly due to the work of the YMCA which introduced it in many countries and to the American Military during World War I, which dramatically increased the importance of basketball in the American Society (Pope, 1995, p.447).

It spread so quickly that in 1936 it was already part of the Olympic Games in Berlin.

Afterwards other international competitions followed and took place even during World War II. Due to the destruction of gymnasiums and open places Basketball could not be played in Europe (especially Germany) anymore on a regular basis, after World War II was over. Like the recovery of the nations, the recovery of European basketball took place slowly, but steadily. Finally in 1949 the first nationwide German basketball organization was founded substantiating the full recovery of Basketball there (Deutscher Basketball-Bund 2, 2004). Unhampered by wars and cultural boarders Basketball made its way to being one of the most popular team sports all over the world.


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